The most common way the ankle can be injured is by a sprain and when it occurs, the ligaments in the ankle are stretched or torn partially or completely. The most common type of sprain is an inversion injury, where the foot is rotated inward. Ankle sprains can range from mild to moderate to severe. The Type I ankle sprain is mild and occurs when there has been a minimum stretch or tear the ligaments.
The type II ankle sprain is a moderate level and occurs when some of the fibers of the ligaments are torn completely.
The type III ankle sprain is the most severe and occurs when the entire ligament is torn and there is great instability in the ankle joint.
Acute ankle sprains are initially treated with ice, rest, and limiting the amount of walking and bearing weight on the injured ankle. The leg can be elevated to reduce swelling, and crutches are often recommended to prevent further trauma to the injured ligaments.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory can be taken to reduce local inflammation. Ice packs to further decrease the inflammation in the area and can reduce pain. Patients with serious injuries are placed in immobilization casts.
Surgical repair of grade III injuries is considered, especially for patients who covers sports participation in the future. physical therapy programs are part of the rehabilitation process, incorporating strengthening exercises of the calf muscles. Fractures are repaired with frame to immobilize the bone during healing.
Depending on the severity, fractures may require orthopedic casting, surgical procedures, including fixation, and open repair of the fractured bone.